Whether the State Legislature can enact a law providing an appeal directly to the Supreme Court of India? We, therefore, have no doubt in our mind that Section 13(2) of the Act, in so far as it provides an appeal directly to the Supreme Court, is totally illegal, ultra vires the Constitution and beyond the scope of the powers of the State Legislature. Section 13(2) of the Act is accordingly struck down. we hold that an appeal under Section 13 (2) of the Act directly to the Supreme Court is not maintainable. We, therefore, dismiss this appeal. However, we leave it open to the appellant to approach the High Court for redressal of his grievance under Article 227 of the Constitution. If the appellant does so, the High Court shall decide the matterstrictly in accordance with law.

REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO(S). 5153 OF 2019
H. S. YADAV …APPELLANT(S)
Versus
SHAKUNTALA DEVI PARAKH …RESPONDENT(S)
J U D G M E N T
Deepak Gupta, J.
“Whether the State Legislature can enact a law providing an
appeal directly to the Supreme Court of India?” is the question
arising in this appeal.

  1. The State of Chhattisgarh enacted the Chhattisgarh Rent
    Control Act, 2011 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Act’). Under this
    Act, in the hierarchy of adjudicating authorities there is a Rent
    Controller and above that, a Rent Control Tribunal. In terms of
    Section 7 of the Act the State can appoint one or more officers
    not below the rank of Deputy Collector, as Rent Controller with
    territorial jurisdiction to be specified by the Collector. The Rent
    1
    Control Tribunal (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Tribunal’) is
    constituted under Section 6 of the Act. This Tribunal has
    appellate and supervisory jurisdiction. Section 6 of the Act
    reads as under:­
    “6. Constitution of the Rent Control Tribunal.–
    (1) The State Government shall by notification constitute,
    within thirty days of this Act, a Tribunal in terms of
    Article 323­B of the Constitution, to be called as
    Chhattisgarh Rent Control Tribunal, to give effect to the
    provisions of this Act, and for the adjudication or trial of
    any disputes, complaints, or offences with respect to
    rent, its regulation and control and tenancy issues
    including the rights, title and obligations of landlords and
    tenants.
    Explanation.­ Matters relating to transfer of property
    and/or disputes regarding title over any property shall
    continue to be considered under relevant laws by the
    courts of law.
    (2) The State Government in consultation with the High
    Court shall appoint the Chairman of the Rent Control
    Tribunal, a retired Judge of the High Court or serving or
    retired District Judge not below the rank of Super Time
    Scale.
    (3) The Tribunal shall have such members with such
    qualification, as the State Government may prescribe.
    (4) The State Government shall appoint an officer as the
    Registrar of the Tribunal, who shall not be below the
    cadre of Civil Judge Class­I or the rank of Deputy
    Secretary to the State Government.
    (5) From the date, the Tribunal becomes functional,
    which date shall be published in the State Gazette, the
    jurisdiction of all courts, except the jurisdiction of the
    Supreme Court under Article 136 and High Court under
    Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution, shall stand
    excluded in respect of all matters falling within the
    jurisdiction of the Tribunal:
    2
    Provided, however, that all cases pending before any
    court or authority immediately before the establishment
    of the Tribunal, shall continue to be processed under the
    old Act, as amended from time to time.
    (6) The Tribunal shall have its headquarters at Raipur
    and the State Government may, by notification, fix such
    other places for hearing of matters by the Tribunal, as it
    deems fit.
    (7) The terms and conditions of the service of the
    Chairman and members of the Tribunal shall be such as
    may be prescribed by the State Government.”
  2. Section 13 of the Act provides for an appeal against orders
    of the Rent Controller and the Tribunal. It reads thus:­
    “13. Appeal.­(1) Notwithstanding anything to the
    contrary contained in this Act, a landlord and/or tenant
    aggrieved by any order of the Rent Controller shall have
    the right to appeal in the prescribed manner within the
    prescribed time to the Rent Control Tribunal.
    (2) Appeal against an order of the Rent Control Tribunal
    shall lie with the Supreme Court.”
  3. A bare perusal of Section 13 shows that from any order of
    the Rent Controller an appeal lies to the Rent Control Tribunal
    and in terms of Section 13(2), an appeal lies as a matter of right
    to the Supreme Court.
  4. When the present appeal, filed under Section 13(2) of the
    Act, came up for admission, while issuing notice we had also
    ordered as follows:­
    “xxx xxx xxx
    Notice be given to the learned Advocate General of the
    State of Chhattisgarh and the learned Attorney General
    3
    for India as to whether the provisions contained in
    Section 13(2) of the Chhattisgarh Rent Control Act, 2011
    providing for an appeal to the Supreme Court of India
    against the order of the Rent Control Tribunal,
    Chhattisgarh would be within the legislative competence
    of the State Legislature.
    xxx xxx xxx”
  5. Pursuant to the notice, learned Attorney General has
    appeared and assisted the Court.
  6. At the outset, we would like to point out that the Tribunal
    has been constituted in exercise of the powers vested in the State
    Legislature under Article 323B of the Constitution of India which
    deals with tribunal for other matters. Sub­clause (h) of Clause
    (2) of the said Article which empowers the appropriate legislature
    to constitute a tribunal to deal with the issues relating to rent
    and its regulations read as follows:­
    “323B. Tribunals for other matters.­
    (1) xxx xxx xxx
    (2) The matters referred to in clause (1) are the
    following, namely:­
    xxx xxx xxx
    (h) rent, its regulation and control and tenancy issues
    including the rights, title and interest of landlords and
    tenants;”
  7. It is not disputed before us that the State has the power to
    constitute the Tribunal. The only issue is whether in terms of
    4
    Section 13(2) of the Act, the State Legislature could provide an
    appeal as a matter of right from the order of the Tribunal to the
    Supreme Court.
  8. Article 246 of the Constitution specifically provides that
    Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws in respect of
    matters enumerated in List I (Union List) of the Seventh
    Schedule. Likewise, the State has exclusive powers to make laws
    in respect of matters falling in List II (State List) of the Seventh
    Schedule. As far as the Concurrent List, i.e. List III is concerned,
    both the Union and the State have the power to enact laws but if
    the field is occupied by any law enacted by Parliament then the
    State cannot legislate on the same issue.
  9. Entry 77 of List I of the Seventh Schedule reads as under:­
    “77. Constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers
    of the Supreme Court (including contempt of such Court),
    and the fees taken therein; persons entitled to practise
    before the Supreme Court.”
    Entry 77 gives power to the Union in respect of jurisdiction
    and the powers of the Supreme Court. This power cannot be
    exercised by the State Legislature.
  10. It would also be apposite to refer to Entry 65 of List II of the
    5
    Seventh Schedule, which reads as follows:­
    “65. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the
    Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in
    this List.”
    A bare reading of Entry 65 clearly indicates that the State
    Legislature has no power to enact any legislation relating to
    jurisdiction and power of the Supreme Court. This power is
    specifically excluded.
  11. Entry 46 of List III of the Seventh Schedule is also relevant.
    This reads as follows:­
    “46. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the
    Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in
    this list.”
    Even Entry 46 makes it clear that as far as the
    jurisdictional powers of the Supreme Court are concerned, they
    cannot be exercised under the Concurrent List. Therefore, the
    powers with regard to jurisdiction and power of the Supreme
    Court vest with the Union and Parliament alone can enact a
    legislation in this regard. The power of the Supreme Court
    under Article 136 is always there. However, the State cannot
    enact a legislation providing an appeal directly to the Supreme
    Court. That would amount to entrenching upon the jurisdiction
    of the Union, which the State Legislature does not have.
    6
  12. We are constrained to observe that the men who drafted the
    Act did not even consider the hierarchy of Courts. As pointed
    above, the Rent Control Tribunal is headed by a retired Judge of
    the High Court or District Judge in the Super Time Scale or
    above. What was the rationale of making such an order
    appealable directly to the Supreme Court? We see no reason
    why the supervisory jurisdiction of the High Court should be
    excluded.
  13. We, therefore, have no doubt in our mind that Section 13(2)
    of the Act, in so far as it provides an appeal directly to the
    Supreme Court, is totally illegal, ultra vires the Constitution and
    beyond the scope of the powers of the State Legislature. Section
    13(2) of the Act is accordingly struck down.
  14. While dealing with the issue, we may make reference to the
    fact that the Rent Control Tribunal is a tribunal constituted
    under Article 323B of the Constitution.
  15. In L. Chandrakumar vs. Union of India1
    , this Court clearly
    held that tribunals constituted under Articles 323A and 323B of
    the Constitution are subject to the writ jurisdiction of the High
    Courts. In view of the law laid down in L. Chandrakumar’s
    1 (1993) 4 SCC 119
    7
    case (supra), the High Court can exercise its supervisory
    jurisdiction under Article 227 of the Constitution against the
    orders of the Rent Control Tribunal.
  16. In view of the above, we hold that an appeal under Section
    13 (2) of the Act directly to the Supreme Court is not
    maintainable. We, therefore, dismiss this appeal. However, we
    leave it open to the appellant to approach the High Court for
    redressal of his grievance under Article 227 of the Constitution.
    If the appellant does so, the High Court shall decide the matter
    strictly in accordance with law. Pending application(s) if any,
    stand(s) disposed of.
    …….…………………..J.
    [DEEPAK GUPTA]
    ..…..…………………..J.
    [SURYA KANT]
    NEW DELHI
    OCTOBER 15, 2019
    8